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For All Nails #195: _Historiae Virorum Illustrorum Novangliae_

[The following are excerpts from _Historiae Virorum Illustrorum
Novangliae_ (_Stories of Famous Men of New England_), a school
Latin reader published in 1903 by Athenaeum Press of Boston.  I
have here included five of the 84 biographical sketches in the book --
I hope to translate and present others in the future.  Alert FAN
readers may recognize that several of my footnotes in previous
postings, particularly FAN #89, were taken from this book.  (DAMB)]

_Praefatio_:

The problem of Latin education in our schools is well known.  Fewer
than a third of the applicants to Harvard College in 1902 reached the
required standard on the Latin entrance examination, and other measures
of our youth's performance have been equally disappointing.  I have 
argued elsewhere that the fault lies not in our students but in ourselves,
in our methods of pedagogy.  Only the most brilliant student, after a 
year's study of a standard grammar, will be ready to leap directly into
the original works of Caesar and Nepos.  Reading and translating Latin is
a skill that must be exercised and developed gradually, just as an athlete
must begin by running short distances or throwing small weights.

The present volume is the second in a series of graded Latin readers,
following on my earlier work _Via Latina_.  My goal is to present texts
that increase gradually in difficulty, from those readable with only the 
meanest understanding of the basic grammar to those that imitate the style 
and use the vocabulary of Caesar and Nepos themselves [1].  While the 
subject matter of _Via Latina_ was the history and culture of ancient Rome, 
the stories here present brief biographies of important figures in the 
history of the New England colonies and provinces.

Why use the language of ancient Rome to write about more recent events?
I have found throughout my years of teaching that boys are profoundly
interested in stories that explain things in their daily lives, and that
are connected to their other subjects of study.  My boys at Roxbury Latin
School take the streetcar to Dudley Square, attend dances at Margaret Fuller
Academy, and play football against Bishop Emerson Academy.  Behind each
of these names is the story of the man for which the institution was named.
In Boston we cannot but walk among the shadows of the past, shadows of the
men who shaped not only our own small provinces but the history of an entire 
continent, since both our great nation and its great neighbor can trace
their roots here.

When augmented eventually by the words of the ancient Romans, these 
stories show us that men and nations are much the same now as they were
then.  The clash of Marius against Sulla or Pompey against Caesar is echoed
by that of Burgoyne against Jefferson or Gilpin against Everett.  The forms
of republican government were perverted to tyranny in Rome in the century
before Christ, in Massachusetts in my own youth, and in Mexico until only very
recently.  We must never forget how these things occurred, nor yet forget
the ideals of the men who forged the laws that, God willing, have always
eventually been restored to secure the freedom of the many against the few.

My subjects have been chosen from all those persons born within the five
New England provinces, together with a few born elsewhere whose notable 
careers took place here.  Despite the strict meaning of my title, I have taken
the liberty of including several famous women.  Girls are quite as capable
as boys in the learning of Latin (perhaps more capable, to judge by the 
examination scores from Fuller Academy) and deserve to hear of heroines of
their own.  I have chosen figures of both wide and idiosyncratic renown, some
of the latter of special interest to my own school.  Each side of the great 
civil controversies of 1775 and 1840 is well represented by the stories of
its adherents.  I have made every effort to do so with justice to the 
historical record.

I have space to thank only a few of the many friends and colleagues who have
helped me in this endeavor.  Professor William Cocke of Harvard College has
been my primary advisor on historical matters, and Clarence W. Gleason of
my own school has been my guide in matters of Latin usage and pedagogy.  
Since I have largely followed the practice of the Roman Catholic church in 
the Latin terminology for such post-classical things as frigates and 
telegraphs, I have benefited enormously from the advice of my former 
student Father William Kennedy of St. Margaret-Mary's Church in Braintree.
Finally I thank the many Roxbury Latin boys who have used and commented upon
prior versions of this work.  Of course the responsibility for any errors
of any kind rests upon me rather than upon any of these worthies.

				William Coe Collar [2]
				Headmaster, Roxbury Latin School
				Roxbury, Massachusetts, NC, CNA
				16 March 1903

***************

"Abigail Adams: Founding Mother of Mexico"

Abigail Smith was born in Weymouth, Massachusetts, in 1744, 
her father a Congregational minister and her mother a member
of the well-established Quincy family.  At the age of twenty
she married the ambitious young lawyer John Adams, who was a 
step down socially for a Quincy but proved to be her true soul
mate for fourteen years.

As John built his practice and gradually became involved in 
politics, Abigail bore him five children and maintained their
farm in Braintree.  In 1776 John traveled to Philadelphia to
represent Massachusetts in the Continental Congress.  Abigail's
letters to him there provide a moving picture of her life on the
farm and the depth of the couple's love for each other.  They
also display the beginnings of the political ideas for which 
Abigail is now best remembered.

John returned to Massachusetts in 1777 and was preparing a 
daring mission to represent the Patriot cause in Europe, when
the news of Burgoyne's victory shattered that cause's hopes.
As support for the Rebellion collapsed, a Loyalist mob burned
the Adams farm and John was arrested on a charge of treason.
He made the journey to England in chains, accompanied by Abigail 
and their eldest son John Quincy.  Despite the young colonial's 
eloquent pleas for her husband's life, which won considerable
sympathy in the London press, John was hanged in December 1778.

Returning to America, Abigail joined the thousands of Patriots
organizing the Wilderness Walk to create a new society on the 
frontier.  Fortuitously, she and her children were too late to
join Arnold's doomed expedition to what is now Southern Vandalia, 
and instead became part of the largely Southern migration to the
nascent nation of Jefferson.  The trip was full of hardships, the 
most tragic of which was the loss of her second son Charles to 
disease, but the young widow finally reached her goal and settled 
near the town of Lafayette.

As the new nation organized itself, Abigail's voice was prominent
in its councils in spite of her sex, on account of the Walkers'
respect both for her late husband and for the courage she had shown
on the journey.  The Charter of Rights of the State of Jefferson
formed part of the Constitution of 1793, and within it was a clause
adopted at Abigail's urging:  "The State shall respect the Right
of any Woman to speak in open Court, to hold Property without regard
to that of her Husband, and to be held Equal before the Law."  In
her later writings she suggested that women should even be allowed
to vote, but this idea was never considered seriously during her
lifetime.

Hailed as the "Mother of Her Country", Abigail lived in Lafayette 
until 1811, when (as her health began to fail) she joined her 
son John Quincy in Jefferson City.  She died in 1813, too soon to 
know of John Quincy's fateful mission to Mexico on behalf of Governor 
Hamilton.  But what was possibly her greatest impact came long after 
her death, when the women of Jefferson and then of all Mexico formed 
Abigail Adams Brigades to urge the extension of the franchise to them.  
Women first voted in local and state elections in Jefferson in 1872, 
and in the Mexican national election of 1893 [3].  It is only to be 
hoped that in our own, supposedly more enlightened nation, this 
sensible reform will soon be adopted [4].

***************

"Bishop Ralph Waldo Emerson: Thinker and Leader"

Ralph Waldo Emerson was born in Boston in 1803, into a family
famous for producing Congregationalist clergymen.  His father
William was the Unitarian leader of the First Independent Church
of Boston.  Like his colleagues William Ellery Channing and 
Theodore Parker, William preached that Jesus was an enlightened 
human being rather than God incarnate.  However he never followed
these men into the Church of England, preserving his independence 
until his death in 1811.

Young Waldo naturally took up Unitarian Anglican ideas when he 
entered Harvard College in 1817, leaving in 1821 with a mediocre
academic record but several prizes for oratory.  He worked as a 
schoolteacher while attending the Divinity School, taking holy orders
in 1826 and assuming the pulpit of St. John the Divine Church in 
Boston.

Waldo loved public speaking and the interplay of ideas involved in
writing his sermons, but otherwise he seemed unsuited to parish life.
His attention increasingly turned to his public lectures on philosophy,
and his book of essays _The Infinitude of Private Man_ won him 
considerable acclaim across North America and even in overseas.  In
1838, uncomfortable with both the purely ritual aspects of the Anglican
priesthood and the notion of the Church's theological authority, he 
resigned his pulpit and sailed to England for an extended lecture tour.

Here his growing friendship with Wordsworth, Carlyle, and Dickens 
was interrupted in 1840 by the news of the great civil disturbances
in Massachusetts.  His eloquent plea for the Church to intervene on
behalf of the oppressed workers led the Archbishop of Canterbury to
send him back home, with the title of Bishop of Boston to protect him
>from any reprisals.  He opened the doors of all Anglican churches as
sanctuaries for any who would lay down their arms, saving thousands of
lives.  His public speeches had some effect in moderating the excesses
of Gilpin's imposed provincial government and helped lead to the 
restoration of popular rule in 1842.

These events led to a major shift in Bishop Emerson's philosophy.  "Truth,
love, and justice," he famously argued, "may appear in the guise of any
religion or of none.  Falsehood, hate, and injustice may appear in the 
guise of any religion or of none.  Those who honor the former must unite,
both in religious communities with those who share their particular faith
and across those communities with all men of good will."  The practical
consequence of this doctrine was that Emerson threw himself into both the
administration of the diocese and channels of cooperation with other faiths.

He greatly strengthened the Anglican parochial education system, establishing
liberal arts colleges (such as Hooker in Massachusetts and St. George's 
in Rhode Island) and a system of secondary schools open to all by 
competitive examination.  He also expanded programs to aid the destitute,
working particularly in cooperation with Roman Catholics among New England's
growing immigrant population.

He continued to preach and to lecture and publish on philosophical issues
as well.  The authority of the church, he argued, "is not theological but
moral.  The teachings of Jesus should be studied alongside those of Plato,
of Gautama, of Mahomet, and of the Chinese sages, and each man should learn
>from these teachings according to the dictates of his own conscience.  
What makes us true Christians, true Anglicans, or true North Americans 
is the way we act in the world to uphold the wisdom of all these teachings."  
Retiring in 1868 from the active administration of the diocese, Emerson 
settled on a large estate in Concord where he remained, except for lecture
tours, until his death in 1882.

Residents of Massachusetts know the name of Bishop Emerson best from the 
great Academy built near his home in Concord.  The annual conference of the
Church of North America is now held every summer in the resort town of 
Emerson, Manitoba, near Marlborough City [5].  And there are not one but
three Emerson Colleges, situated in Manitoba, Southern Vandalia, and New
Zealand.

***************

"Governor Edward Everett: Martyr for Massachusetts"

Edward Everett was born in 1794 in Dorchester, Massachusetts (now part
of Boston), the son of a former Congregational minister.  At the age of
seventeen he graduated first in his class from Harvard College.  Torn
between the competing charms of the ministry, law, and scholarship, he
first took up the pulpit of the independent Unitarian Brattle Street
Church in Cambridge but then in 1815 resigned to become Professor of 
Greek Literature at Harvard [6].

In 1821 Everett's friend Daniel Webster was elected Governor of the 
Northern Confederation by the Council.  As part of his overall program,
he asked Everett to lead a commission to propose changes to the Council's
procedures to make it more effective as a "national" legislature.  (These
were planned to revise and extend the reforms of 1810 which had expanded
the Council from a simple coordinating committee, with one delegate from
each province, to a larger and more truly representative body.)  The
commissions' recommendations were adopted _in toto_ in 1824, and served 
eventually as the primary model for the creation of the Grand Council of
the entire C.N.A. in the Second Design of 1843.

Everett was elected as a delegate from Masschusetts to the N.C. Council 
in 1825 and served for ten years, working closely with Webster on both
internal and external matters.  He returned in 1835 to seek and win election
as Governor of Massachusetts.  Under his leadership the province established
a pioneering Board of Education, undertook a comprehensive scientific survey
of its territory and resources, and instituted inprovements both to Boston
harbor and to the road and railway networks.  He was re-elected without
serious opposition in both 1837 and 1839 in spite of the general economic
decline.

During his third term the problem of labor unrest increasingly dominated
the provincial government's attention.  The Laborer's Alliance, an outgrowth
of Freund's Grand Consolidated Union of Workers, attempted to win concessions
>from employers -- primarily through strikes and non-intercourse agreements
but increasingly enforcing its will through violence and intimidation.  In
response, employers formed private military forces to escort strikebreakers
into work sites.  When these groups began attacking laborer's meetings and
breaking up peaceful demonstrations, however, general violence began to 
escalate.

On 28 August 1840 over 100 men were killed in a street battle in Andersontown,
Masachusetts, most of them Consolidated demonstrators set upon by Anderson
Textiles' "escort force", mostly made up of members recruited from
the Hennessey and Wright criminal organizations [7].  Everett ordered the 
provincial militia to enforce order in the city, and when the Anderson
force resisted the militia Everett declared martial law in Andersontown
and sent to New York to ask Webster for military support.

As fate and an assassin's bullet would have it, however, Everett's request
reached not Webster but the new Governor, Henry Gilpin.  Gilpin not only
sent the N.C. Army to both Andersontown and Boston but swore in those very
Anderson escort forces as auxiliary N.C. troops and dissolved the Massachusetts
legislature, which he claimed was in league with the demonstrators.  Everett's
strong protest resulted only in his being placed under house arrest and
held incommunicado as the army/auxiliary reign of terror began.  Over eight
thousand men were killed in Massachusetts alone before N.C. Governor Dix
restored the provincial government in 1842.

The end of the terror came too late, however, for Governor Everett himself.
Although most historians agree he was not physically mistreated by his
captors, the conditions of his house arrest were indeed spartan.  In July
of 1841 a cholera epidemic swept Boston, aided by the complete breakdown
of social order, and claimed the 47-year-old governor among its victims.
The military authorities had no choice but to allow a public funeral, at
which Bishop Emerson spoke, and the enormous peaceful outpouring of support
and grief helped demonstrate popular opposition to the occupation.  This
helped lead to Gilpin's decision to allow Massachusetts to take part in 
the N.C. election of 1842 that eventually ended his regime (though of course
by that time he had become Governor-General of the C.N.A.).

Edward Everett gives his name to Everett Square and the Everett Public Library
in Boston, to the town of Fort Everett in Southern Vandalia [8], and to
Lake Everett in Manitoba.  A mural of his death, with Bishop Emerson 
holding his hands in prayer (although in historical fact Emerson was not 
present at the occasion), stands directly behind the rostrum of the 
Massachusetts Legislative Assembly chamber in Boston.

***************

"Jeremiah Hazard: Maine's Naval Hero"

Jeremiah Preble Hazard was born in Arundel, Maine (then part
of the colony of Massachusetts) in 1755.  He spent most of his
youth on boats and ships of various kinds, "coming ashore only
to study mathematics" in his father's words.  He earned an appointment
as a midshipman in the Royal Navy in 1770 and served with distinction
in wars against the Dutch and various pirates.  In 1784 Governor-General
Clinton of the Northern Confederation invited Captain Hazard to return
home and supervise the establishment of the Royal N.C. Navy.  He had
heavy frigates constructed, one in each major seaport, including his
flagship _Confederation_ built in Falmouth.

Hazard's fleet was put to the test when war broke out with France
and Spain in August of 1795.  The enemy devised a plan to assault
the mouth of Chesapeake Bay with a large fleet, hoping to take the
city of Norfolk and encourage a general revolt among dissidents in
Virginia.  On 12 April 1796, Hazard in _Confederation_ was in personal
command of the N.C. Navy's southern squadron of fourteen ships, five of
them frigates.

Suddenly one of Hazard's ships sighted the enemy fleet, consisting of
four ships of the line, eight frigates, and twelve other ships.
Coordinating their actions with a signal system of Hazard's design,
the vastly outnumbered N.C. fleet attacked, beginning the Battle of
Craney Island.  Early in the fight a Spanish cannonball reached
the powder magazine of _Confederation_ and detonated it, with the
loss of all aboard.

The N.C. fleet did considerable damage to the French and Spanish, and
more importantly delayed their invasion until a powerful British and
S.C. force arrived and routed the enemy near Craney Island, preventing
the invasion and preserving British rule in North America.  Hazard's 
heroism and final sacrifice were reported to the world by the young 
Scottish Captain Thomas Cochrane, who in his sloop _Diana_ (a British 
ship seconded to Hazard's squadron) first boarded and took a Spanish 
frigate, then rallied the survivors of the squadron.  This was of course 
the same Cochrane whose brilliant career eventually made him Admiral of 
the (British) Fleet and the first Duke of Annapolis.

Hazard's name is now counted as the greatest in the history of the
(now combined) Royal North American Navy.  The battleship _Jeremiah
Hazard_ patrols the Atlantic today from its base in Norfolk where
Hazard (the former Craney) Island and the Hazard River also bear his 
name.  There are Hazard Counties in both his home province of Maine and 
in Southern Vandalia, and Fort Hazard guards the harbor of Mobile in 
Georgia.

***************

"Philip Lodge: General of the Rocky Mountain War" 

Philip Lodge was born in Boston in 1804, into a family already 
prominent in shipowning and public affairs.  Always interested 
in military matters, Philip surprised his family by joining
the East India Company as an army officer and served with distinction 
there until he returned to North America in 1832.  When in 1839 the 
Northern Confederation needed to assemble an army rapidly to confront 
the Indian uprising in Indiana, the experienced Lodge was a natural 
choice to be its commanding general.  He again served with distinction 
at the battle of Michigan City and at the successful defense of Fort 
Radisson, and won the lifelong friendship of General Winfield Scott.

In 1840 the standing Northern Confederation army, still commanded 
by Lodge, was ordered by N.C. Governor Henry Gilpin to assist 
private forces in suppressing unrest by workers' unions.  Rather 
than lead the army against his own people, Lodge resigned his
commission and worked politically to end the bloodshed.  In 1843
he won election as a Liberal to the first Grand Council under the 
Second Design.  He opposed war with Mexico, but when war broke out 
in 1845 he resigned his seat in the Council and took command of the 
N.C. component of the North American Army.  

Lodge was initially successful in securing the disputed South Park
region of Southern Vandalia and (following Gilpin's plan) drove south 
into Mexico del Norte toward the city of Conyers.  He was then met in
March 1846 by a much larger Mexican force and suffered major defeats at 
Arroyo Hondo and Arroyo de Dios [9].  His critics say that he was too 
cautious and was repeatedly out-thought by his opponent Running Deer, but 
others say that, like Uriah in the Old Testament, he was deliberately 
sent into the thickest part of the fray with inadequate support by a 
commander, Gilpin, who was his enemy.

Seriously wounded during Gilpin's ill-advised second drive on Conyers,
Lodge returned to Boston.  Returning to duty in 1848, he was ordered to
attack Conyers a third time but fell ill and relinquished his command
to General Chapin, who was also defeated by Running Deer, this time at 
Four Man Ditch [10].  Retiring to his family home in Boston, Lodge died in 
1857.  The city of Fort Lodge, capital of Southern Vandalia, is only 
the most notable of many sites named in his honor.

Notes:

[1] Since our interest here is in North American history rather than Latin
    pedagogy, I have made no effort to reproduce this gradation in difficulty
    in my translations.

[2] William Coe Collar (1833-1916) had parallel careers in OTL and in the
    FANTL, as headmaster of Roxbury Latin School from 1867 to 1907.  I am
    indebted to F. W. Jarvis' _Schola Illustris_ for background on his life,
    and to my sister Jennie Barrington for finding me two of his OTL textbooks
    (including _Via Latina_) in a used bookstore.  The Amherst College that
    Collar attended in OTL 1855-7 is replaced in the FANTL by Hooker
    College, founded in Amherst, Mass., in 1821 as an Anglican seminary but 
    converted to a general liberal arts college during Bishop Emerson's 
    reforms.  (This college is incorrectly referred to as St. Thomas More
    College in FAN #73 and in several of my non-canonical SHWI postings.  It
    is named after Richard Hooker, the Elizabethan Anglican divine credited
    with establishing the Church of England's traditions of doctrinal 
    tolerance.)  See FAN #186 for more background on Roxbury Latin and a 
    scene set there in 1975.

[3] Sobel does not report any Mexican national elections during the Hermion
    period.  While hardly free or fair, these elections did occur -- Hermion
    badly bent the Constitution but did not actually break it until he 
    declared himself Emperor in April 1901.  His position of "Chief of 
    state" was an interim one, intended to carry out the functions of the
    presidency until a new poll could be held, since the Constitution made 
    no provision for special elections.  The next election took place on
    schedule in 1887, and unsurprisingly Hermion faced no organized opposition
    and was chosen President by the Senate.  Sobel's confusion may be in part
    due to the fact that Hermion continued to be called "El Jefe".

[4] In fact the CNA gave women the vote in 1908, only five years after 
    Collar wrote this.  Prof. Pez, in his review of Sobel's _For All Time_ 
    (FAN #93), speculates on why _For Want of a Nail_ mentions this only 
    in a footnote on page 85.  See also FAN #6 and #6a.

[5] OTL Banff, Alberta.

[6] This incredible precocity is not something I'd make up -- it exactly
    mirrors the career of OTL's Everett, who also become Governor of 
    Massachusetts and today is perhaps best known for his two-hour principal
    address at the dedication of the battlefield cemetary at Gettysburg, an
    address followed by brief remarks from the President.

[7] Sean Hennessey, transported from Ulster to military-ruled Massachusetts
    in 1785, was a founder of the Orange Order as a North American criminal 
    enterprise and subject of another biography in this volume to be
    translated at a later date.  His descendents are still influential 
    in the Order, see FAN #184.

[8] OTL Pueblo, Colorado.

[9] Both near OTL Taos, NM.  Conyers is on the site of Albequerque, NM.

[10] Collar calls this battle site _Fossa Quattuor Hominum_ in Latin.  I
     am following Cocke's _Caesar in Broadcloth_ and most other English 
     sources in calling it "Four Man Ditch" -- the origin of the name is 
     obscure.  Sobel seems to have gotton the misspelled Spanish "Arroyo de
     Quatros Hombres" from an original 1821 survey map drawn by Captain
     Zachary Taylor, AUSM.  Both sides in the Rocky Mountain War were 
     often plagued by inadequate cartography, see for example FAN #173.

Dave MB (with thanks to Johnny, Matt, Noel and Tom)